Adsorption is the phenomenon of attracting and retaining the molecules of a substance on the surface of a solid resulting into a higher concentration on the surface than in the bulk. The substance adsorbed is known as adsorbate and the substance on which adsorption takes place is called adsorbent. In physisorption, adsorbate is held to the adsorbent by weak van der Waals forces, and in chemisorption, adsorbate is held to the adsorbent by strong chemical bond. Almost all solids adsorb gases. The extent of adsorption of a gas on a solid depends upon nature of gas, nature of solid, surface area of the solid, pressure of gas and temperature of gas. The relationship between the extent of adsorption (x/m) and pressure of the gas at constant temperature is known as adsorption isotherm.
A catalyst is a substance which enhances the rate of a chemical reaction without itself getting used up in the reaction. The phenomenon using catalyst is known as catalysis. In homogeneous catalysis, the catalyst is in the same phase as are the reactants, and in heterogeneous catalysis the catalyst is in a different phase from that of the reactants.
Colloidal solutions are intermediate between true solutions and suspensions. The size of the colloidal particles range from 1 to 1000 nm. A colloidal system consists of two phases – the dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. Colloidal systems are classified in three ways depending upon (i) physical states of the dispersed phase and dispersion medium (ii) nature of interaction between the dispersed phase and dispersion medium and (iii) nature of particles of dispersed phase. The colloidal systems show interesting optical, mechanical and electrical properties. The process of changing the colloidal particles in a sol into the insoluble precipitate by addition of some suitable electrolytes is known as coagulation. Emulsions are colloidal systems in which both dispersed phase and dispersion medium are liquids. These can be of: (i) oil in water type and (ii) water in oil type. The process of making emulsion is known as emulsification. To stabilise an emulsion, an emulsifying agent or emulsifier is added. Soaps and detergents are most frequently used as emulsifiers. Colloids find several applications in industry as well as in daily life.
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Physical Chemistry – Surface Chemistry
Complete Chemistry for Engg and Medical Entrance Exam Preparation. ( IIT JEE Main | Advanced | BITSAT | SAT | NEET etc.)
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Table of contents
You will learn
✓ Define adsorption and classify it into physical and chemical adsorption
✓ Explain mechanism of adsorption
✓ Explain the factors controlling adsorption from gases and solutions on solids
✓ Explain adsorption results on the basis of Freundlich adsorption isotherms
✓ Appreciate the role of catalysts in industry
✓ Enumerate the nature of colloidal state
✓ Describe preparation, properties and purification of colloids
✓ Classify emulsions and describe their preparation and properties
✓ Describe the phenomenon of gel formation
✓ List the uses of colloids
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