Plants unlike animals have no special systems for breathing or gaseous exchange. Stomata and lenticels allow gaseous exchange by diffusion. Almost all living cells in a plant have their surfaces exposed to air.
The breaking of C-C bonds of complex organic molecules by oxidation cells leading to the release of a lot of energy is called cellular respiration. Glucose is the favoured substrate for respiration. Fats and proteins can also be broken down to yield energy. The initial stage of cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm. Each glucose molecule is broken through a series of enzyme catalysed reactions into two molecules of pyruvic acid. This process is called glycolysis. The fate of the pyruvate depends on the availability of oxygen and the organism. Under anaerobic conditions either lactic acid fermentation or alcohol fermentation occurs. Fermentation takes place under anaerobic conditions in many prokaryotes, unicellular eukaryotes and in germinating seeds. In eukaryotic organisms aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen. Pyruvic acid is transported into the mitochondria where it is converted into acetyl CoA with the release of CO2. Acetyl CoA then enters the tricarboxylic acid pathway or Krebs’ cycle operating in the matrix of the mitochondria. NADH + H+ and FADH2 are generated in the Krebs’ cycle. The energy in these molecules as well as that in the NADH + H+ synthesised during glycolysis are used to synthesise ATP. This is accomplished through a system of electron carriers called electron transport system (ETS) located on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrons, as they move through the system, release enough energy that are trapped to synthesise ATP. This is called oxidative phosphorylation. In this process O2 is the ultimate acceptor of electrons and it gets reduced to water.
The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway as it involves both anabolism and catabolism. The respiratory quotient depends upon the type of respiratory substance used during respiration.
1. Differentiate between
(a) Respiration and Combustion
(b) Glycolysis and Krebs’ cycle
(c) Aerobic respiration and Fermentation
2. What are respiratory substrates? Name the most common respiratory substrate.
3. Give the schematic representation of glycolysis?
4. What are the main steps in aerobic respiration? Where does it take place?
5. Give the schematic representation of an overall view of Krebs’ cycle.
6. Explain ETS.
7. Distinguish between the following:
(a) Aerobic respiration and Anaerobic respiration
(b) Glycolysis and Fermentation
(c) Glycolysis and Citric acid Cycle
8. What are the assumptions made during the calculation of net gain of ATP?
9. Discuss “The respiratory pathway is an amphibolic pathway.”
10. Define RQ. What is its value for fats?
11. What is oxidative phosphorylation?
12. What is the significance of step-wise release of energy in respiration?
Disclosure: when you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission.
Biology – Respiration
Olympiad, Foundation, NEET, AIIMS, CBSE, iGCSE, GCSE, MCAT, AP-Biology & More
Top Biology courses:
CourseMarks Score® helps students to find the best classes. We aggregate 18 factors, including freshness, student feedback and content diversity.
Course content can become outdated quite quickly. After analysing 71,530 courses, we found that the highest rated courses are updated every year. If a course has not been updated for more than 2 years, you should carefully evaluate the course before enrolling.
New courses are hard to evaluate because there are no or just a few student ratings, but Student Feedback Score helps you find great courses even with fewer reviews.
The top online course contains a detailed description of the course, what you will learn and also a detailed description about the instructor.
Tests, exercises, articles and other resources help students to better understand and deepen their understanding of the topic.
This course contains:
Table of contents
You will learn
✓ Aerobic Respiration
✓ The Respiratory Balance Sheet
✓ Amphibolic Pathway
✓ Respiratory Quotient
This course is for
• Beginners in Biology.
• NEET & MHT-CET aspirants
• Those preparing for board and competitive exams State Board, CBSE, ICSE , IGCSE, MHT-CET & NEET